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Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 2 ~Long Walk to Freedom

Long Walk to Freedom



Nelson Mandela 'Long Walk to Freedom' | Class 10 English, Hindi ...




After a great struggle, democratic elections were held in which Nelson Mandela was elected the first black President of South Africa On May 10, 1994, Mandela was sworn in as the President. In this chapter chapter, Mandela pays tribute to those black heroes and patriots who waged a relentless struggle against the racist regime of South Africa. He recalls briefly how this day was celebrated and what his feelings were at the time of those celebrations.








Quick Revision Notes

• Nelsom Mandela swears in as the first black president of South Africa on 10th May 1994.

• At the time of his swearing two national anthems were sung. He wished that freedom in Africa should reign.

• The swearing in ceremony took place in the lovely sandstone amphitheater in Pretoria

• He addressed the rainbow gathering with a zest telling that never, never, and never again should it be that that beautiful land would experience the oppression of one by another.

• He wished that freedom in Africa should reign.

• The army officials who could have caught have and put him in jail before were saluting him to pay respect to the newly born democracy.

• The two national anthems were sung at the time of his swearing in ceremony.

• He recalls back the history and pays homage to the national martyrs who sacrificed their lives for the sake of their motherland.

• He tells about the martyrs were the man of extraordinary courage and wisdom and generosity.

• That’s why he pays homage to the national martyrs who sacrifice their lives for the sake of their motherland.

Summary of Long walk to freedom Class 10 First Flight

• The country of South Africa is rich in minerals and gems but the greatest wealth of country is its people.

• He tells no one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background , or his religion.

• If people learn to hate, they can be taught to love too.

• He talks that man's goodness is a flame that can be hidden but never exhausted.

• He talks about the twin obligations-obligation towards his family & obligation towards his nation.

• While discharging his duties he found he was not free. Hence, he joined African National Congress fought for the freedom of his country.

• He well known about the oppressor must be liberated just as surely as the oppressed.

• The oppressor and oppressed are alike are robbed of their humanity.



Long Walk to Freedom Question and Answers  

1. Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone?
A. The ceremonies took place in an amphitheatre which was formed by Union Buildings in Pretoria. In India, we have many public buildings made of sandstone, some of which are Rashtrapati Bhavan, Red Fort and the Supreme Court of India in New Delhi.

2. Can you say how 10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa?
A. Since South Africa lies in the Southern Hemisphere, we can say that May falls in the autumn season.

3. At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the “glorious … human achievement” he speaks of at the end?
A. By “an extraordinary human disaster”, Mandela is referring to the apartheid system that was prevalent in South Africa under the previous leadership. People of colour were treated unfairly and no human being deserves that. He stood against the unjust practices and finally won the democratic elections to become the first black President of South Africa. He refers to this win as “glorious human achievement”.

4. What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?
A. The author thanked the international leaders for joining and supporting them in their victory of freedom, justice and human dignity. Earlier, many nations had cut ties with South Africa because of their practice of apartheid.

5. What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa?
A. As the newly elected President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela wanted to liberate the country of all the unjust practices. He set out ideals for a country which was free of poverty, discrimination and injustice.

6. What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why?
A. The military generals saluted Nelson Mandela and promised their support to the newly formed democratic government of South Africa. Their attitude has changed because earlier they were under the ruke of the white supremacy. During that rule, they would have arrested Mandela as he was considered to be a criminal. Now, with the abolition of Apartheid and the formation of a democratic government, their attitude has also changed.

7. Why were two national anthems sung?
A. The two national anthems, one of the Blacks and other of the Whites were sung symbolising equality and respect for the entire community irrespective of their colour.

8. How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country
(i) In the first decade, and
(ii) In the final decade, of the twentieth century?
A. (i) In the first decade of the twentieth century, white supremacy created a system of racial domination and made life a living hell for the dark-skinned people. Mandela referred it as one of the “harshest, inhumane societies” of the world.
(ii) In the final decade of the twentieth century, the system of apartheid has been changed into one that recognises all humans as equal regardless of their colour, race or gender.

9. What does courage mean to Mandela?
A. To Mandela, “courage” does not mean the absence of fear, but the victory over it. A man who is courageous is the one who has overcome his fear to fight all the odds.

10. Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate?
A. He believes love comes more naturally to humans as opposed to hate. No one is born with hatred in his heart for another.

11. What “twin obligations” does Mandela mention?
A. According to Mandela, every person has “twin obligations”, one towards his family and the other, towards his society.  

12. What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honourable freedoms”?
A. As a young boy, and a student, Mandela’s idea of freedom was to be able to stay out at night, read whatever he desired and go wherever he chose. On growing up as a man, he realised that these were “transitory freedoms” he was looking for because their “basic and honourable freedoms” had been taken away. There was no liberty to have a peaceful marriage, family and life. Dark-skinned people were deprived of their fundamental human rights. For them, freedom was an “illusion”.

13. Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/Why not?
A. According to Mandela, the oppressor is as much a prisoner as the oppressed. As soon as the former robs the oppressed of their freedom he, himself gets robbed of his humanity. Thus, he thinks that the oppressor too, is not free.

14. Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of?
A. At the inauguration ceremony, there were a large number of international leaders to celebrate the end of apartheid system and to display their support for South Africa. It signified the triumph of justice over prejudice, courage over fear and right over wrong.

15. What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots” who had gone before him?
A. Mandela wanted to thank the generations before him who had fought for justice. He gathered his courage from these brave heroes and it is because of that, he fought fearlessly for what is right. Thus, he referred to himself as “simply the sum of all those African patriots” that had gone before him.

16. Would you agree that the “depths of oppression” create “heights of character”? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument?
A. Yes, I agree that “depths of oppression” create “heights of character”. Mandela illustrated this idea by the example of all those who had emerged as great freedom fighters after years of oppression and brutality. Though unintended, effect of all this was men with extraordinary courage and strength. One of the greatest examples is of our own country, where our people were exploited under British rule for about 200 years. As a result of oppression of such magnitude, India got freedom fighters like Bhagat Singh and Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

17. How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?
A. As a young boy, and a student, Mandela’s idea of freedom was to be able to stay out at night, read whatever he desired and go wherever he chose. On growing up as a man, he realised that these were “transitory freedoms” he was looking for because their “basic and honourable freedoms” had been taken away. There was no liberty to have a peaceful marriage, family and life. Dark-skinned people were deprived of their fundamental human rights. For them, freedom was an “illusion”.

18. How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?
A. Once Mandela realized his hunger for freedom, his life changed forever. It transformed him from a family-man to a man of his people and a frightened young man into a bold one. He built his entire life around fighting for the basic fundamental rights for his community.  He was more selfless and virtuous than ever.





Excercise Questions And Answers 


1. Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone?

Answer

The ceremonies took place in the campus of the Union Building of Pretoria.
The Parliament House in New Delhi, the Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi, the Supreme Court of India in New Delhi and Madras High Court in Chennai are some examples of Indian public buildings that are made of sandstone.

2. Can you say how 10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa?

Answer

10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa because on this day there was the largest gathering of international leaders on South African soil for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.



3. At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the “glorious … human achievement” he speaks of at the end?

Answer

By human disaster Mandela means to say that coloured people have suffered a lot due to discrimination in the hands of whites. He considered it as great glorious human achievement that a black person became the president of a country where the blacks are not considered as human being and are treated badly.

4. What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?

Answer

Mandela felt privileged to be the host to the nations of the world because not too long ago, the South Africans were considered outlaws. He thus thanked all the international leaders for having come to witness his investiture as President since this event could be considered as a common victory for justice, peace and human dignity.

5. What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa?

Answer 

Mandela set out the ideals of poverty alleviation, removal of suffering of people. He also set the ideal for a society where there would be no discrimination based on gender or racial origins.

6. What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why? 

Answer 

The highest military generals of the South African defence force and police saluted Mandela and pledged their loyalty.
Their attitude towards blacks had taken great change. Instead of arresting a black they saluted him.


7. Why were two national anthems sung?

Answer

On the day of the inauguration, two national anthems were sung, one by the whites, and the other by the blacks. This symbolized the equality of blacks and whites.

8. How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country (i) in the first decade, and (ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century?

Answer 

(i) In the first decade of the twentieth century, the white-skinned people of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against the dark-skinned people of their own land, thus creating the basis of one of the harshest and most inhumane societies the world had ever known.
(ii) In the last decade of the twentieth century, the previous system had been overturned forever and replaced by one that recognized the rights and freedoms of all peoples, regardless of the colour of their skin.

9. What does courage mean to Mandela?


Answer

For Mandela courage does not mean the absence of fear but a victory over fear. According to him brave men need not be fearless but should be able to conquer fear.


10. Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate?

Answer

For Mandela, love comes more naturally to the human heart than hate.



11. What “twin obligations” does Mandela mention?

Answer

Mandela mentions that every man has twin obligations. The first is to his family, parents, wife and children; the second obligation is to his people, his community and his country.

12. What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honourable freedoms”?

Answer 

Like any other kid for Mandela also the freedom meant a freedom to make merry and enjoy the blissful life. Once anybody becomes an adult then antics of childhood looks like transitory because most of the childish activity is wasteful from an adult’s perspective. Once you are adult then someday you have to earn a livelihood to bring the bacon home, then only you get an honourable existence in the family and in the society.

13. Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/Why not?

Answer 

Mandela does not feel that the oppressor is free because according to him an oppressor is a prisoner of hatred, who is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrow-mindedness. He feels that both the oppressor and the oppressed are robbed of their humanity.


14. Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of?

Answer 

The presence of large number of international leaders was a gesture of solidarity from international community to the idea of the end of apartheid. It  signified the triumph of good over evil, the triumph of the idea of a tolerant society  without any discrimination.


15. What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots” who had gone before him?

Answer 

Mandela wants to pay his tribute to all the people who had sacrificed their lives for the sake of freedom. he feels that he is the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before him because those heroes of yesterday years had paved the path of co-operation and unity for him. Therefore, he got the support of his people to be able to come to power to bring equality for his own people.

16.Would you agree that the “depths of oppression” create “heights of character? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument?

Answer 

Yes, I agree that the “depths of oppression” create “heights of character”. Nelson Mandela illustrates this by giving examples of great heroes of South Africa who sacrificed their lives in the long freedom struggle. India is full of such examples. During our freedom struggle there was a galaxy of leaders of great characters. Probably the oppression of British rule created so many men of such characters. If we compare this with the quality of political leaders India is having today, then Nelson Mandela seems to be absolutely right.

17. How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?

Answer

With age Nelson Mandela realised that he had a lot of responsibilities of his people, his community and his country. As a boy, Mandela did not have a hunger for freedom because he thought that he was born free. He believed that as long as he obeyed his father and abided by the customs of his tribe, he was free in every possible manner. He had certain needs as a teenager and certain needs as a young man. Gradually, he realized that he was selfish during his boyhood. He slowly understands that it is not just his freedom that is being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. It is after attaining this understanding that he develops a hunger for the freedom of his people.

18. How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?

Answer 

Mandela realized in his youth that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. The hunger for his own freedom became the hunger for the freedom of his people. This desire of a non-racial society transformed him into a virtuous and self-sacrificing man. Thus, he joined the African National Congress and this changed him from a frightened young man into a bold man.



I. There are nouns in the text (formationgovernment) which are formed from the corresponding verbs (formgovern) by suffixing − (at)ion or ment. There may be change in the spelling of some verb − noun pairs: such as rebelrebellionconstituteconstitution.

1. Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text.

Noun
Verb
rebellion
rebel
constitution
constitute

Answer

Noun
Verb
Rebellion
Rebel
Constitution
Constitute
Formation
Form
Government
Govern
Obligation
Oblige
Transformation
Transform
Discrimination
Discriminate
Deprivation
Deprive
Demonstration
Demonstrate
Oppression
Oppress
Imagination
Imagine

2. Read the paragraph below. Fill in the blanks with the noun forms of the verbs in brackets.

Martin Luther King’s __________ (contribute) to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the __________ (assist) of Rosa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean __________ (subjugate) and __________ (humiliate) by the police and the legal system. Beatings, __________ (imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the System. Martin Lither King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent __________ (resist) to racial injustice.

Answer 

Martin Luther King’s contribution (contribute) to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the assistance (assist) of Rosa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean subjugation (subjugate) and humiliation (humiliate) by the police and the legal system. Beatings, imprisonment (imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the System. Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent resistance (resist) to racial injustice.


II. Here are some more examples of ‘the’ used with proper names. Try to say what these sentences mean. (You may consult a dictionary if you wish. Look at the entry for ‘the’)

1. Mr Singh regularly invites the Amitabh Bachchans and the Shah Rukh Khans to his parties.
2. Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is the Madhubala of our times.
3. History is not only the story of the Alexanders, the Napoleons and the Hitlers, but of ordinary people as well.


Answer 


1. This means that Mr Singh regularly invites famous personalities such as Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan to his parties.
2. This means that Madhuri Dixit is compared to a landmark in acting in the form of legendary actress Madhubala.
3. This means that history is not only the story of the great fighters and leaders such as Alexander, Napoleon and Hitler, but also of ordinary people.



III. Match, the italicised phrases in Column A with the phrase nearest meaning in Column B. (Hint: First look for the sentence in the text which the phrase in column A occurs.)

A

B
1.I was not unmindful of the fact.(i)had not forgotten: was aware of the fact


(ii)was not careful about the fact


(iii)forgot or was not aware of the fact
2.When my comrades and I were pushed to our limits(i)pushed by the guards to the wall


(ii)took more than our share of beatings


(iii)felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer
3.To reassure me and keep me going(i)make me go on walking


(ii)help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation


(iii)make me remain without complaining
4.The basic and honourable freedoms of … earning my keep…(i)earning enough money to live on

(ii)keeping what I earned

(iii)getting a good salary

Answer

A
B
1.I was not unmindful of the fact(i)had not forgotten; was aware of the fact
2.When my comrades and I were pushed to our limits(iii)felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer
3.To reassure me and keep me going(ii)help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation
4.The basic and honourable freedoms of … earning my keep(i)earning enough money to live on



Q1- When was the inauguration day?
A) 10 May
B) 10 March
C) 20 May
D) 20 March

Q2- It was a celebration of South Africa's first ______ government.
A) autocratic, racial
B) democratic, non-racial
C) democratic, racial
D) monarch, non-racial

Q3- How many deputy presidents were elected?
A) two
B) three
C) one
D) none

Q4- Why did other countries broke off diplomatic relations wih South Africa?
A) White rulers
B) Other countries are racial
C) It is a poor country
D) Apartheid policy

Q5- What change brought international leaders to South Africa?
A) End of Apartheid
B) humanity
C) peace
D) trade negotiations

Q6- "We thank all of our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for ____."
A) justice
B) peace
C) human dignity
D) all of the above

Q7- What was it that the nation needed to be liberated from?
A) poverty
B) gender discrimination
C) deprivation
D) all of the above

Q8- "We have achieved our political emancipation." What is the meaning of emancipation?
A) freedom from restriction
B) enslavement
C) slavery
D) both 2 and 3

Q9- The spectacular array of South African jets was a display of -
A)military's precision
B) military's loyalty to democracy
D) both 1 and 2
C) none of the above

Q10- What colours does the new South African flag possess?
A) black, red, green, blue and gold
B) black, red, yellow, blue and gold
C) orange, black, yellow, blue and silver
D) black, blue, violet, saffron and green

Q11- "The structure they created formed the basis of one of the harshest, most inhumane, societies the world has ever known." What structure is Mandela talking about?
A) Racial domination against the black skinned
B) Poverty and suffering
C) Discrimination against the poor
D) oppression of women

Q12- Whom did Mandela wanted to thank but couldn't?
A) his family
B) white rulers
C) African patriots who no longer existed
D) Military

Q13- What unintended effect did the decades of oppression and brutality had?
A) created men of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity
B) Poverty and suffering
C) boycot from foreign nations
D) both 2 and 3

Q14- According to Mandela, what is the greatest wealth of a nation?
A) minerals
B) gems
C) diamonds
D) people

Q15- What did Mandela learn about courage?
A) it is absence of fear
B) it is the triumph over fear
C) both 1 and 2
D) none of the above

Q16- What are a man's obligations in life?
A) Obligation to people
B) Obligation to family
C) Obligation to God
D) Both 1 and 2

Q17- Why were two National Anthems sung?
A) to imply unity
B) to mark the end of racial discrimination
C) to mark the end of gender discrimination
D) Both 1 and 2

Q18- What comes more naturally to heart according to Mandela?
A) hatred
B) unity
C) love
D) racial discrimination

Q19- What realisations did Mandela have of his boyhood freedom?
A) it is just an illusion
B) he was born free
C) freedom was meant for kids
D) he had no realisations

Q20- What began Mandela's hunger for freedom?
A) the fact that it had already been taken away from him
B) his obligation towards people
C) his obligation towards family
D) he was born to fight

Q21- Which party did Mandela join?
A) Indian National Congress
B) African National Congress
C) National African Party
D) he did not join any party

Q22- A man who takes away another man's freedom is _____
A) White
B) a prisoner of hatred
C) criminal
D) rude

Q23- Who, according to Mandela is not free?
A) oppressor
B) oprressed
C) both 1 and 2
D) none of the above

Q24- How did Mandela's hunger for freedom change his life?
A) turned from frightened to bold
B) turned from law-abiding attorney to a criminal
C) turned a life-loving man to live like a monk
C) all of the above

Q25- What does depths of oppression create?
A) oppressed
B) heights of character
C) poverty
D) lack of freedom



ANSWER KEY
1
A
11
A
21
B
2
B
12
C
22
B
3
A
13
A
23
C
4
D
14
D
24
D
5
A
15
B
25
B
6
D
16
D
26

7
D
17
D
27

8
A
18
C
28

9
C
19
A
29

10
A
20
A
30


Class 10 English First Flight
  1. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 1- A Letter to God
  2. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 2- Long Walk to Freedom
  3. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 3- Two Stories About Flying
  4. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 4- From the Diary of Anne Frank
  5. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 5-The Hundred Dresses - I
  6. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 6- The Hundred Dresses - II
  7. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 7- Glimpses of India
  8. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 8- Mijbil the Otter
  9. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 9- Madam Rides the Bus
  10. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 10- The Sermon at Benares
  11. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 11- The Proposal


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